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Researchers Ramez Abdallah, Abdel-Fattah Salameh and Adel Juaidi from the Mechanical Engineering Department at An-Najah National University and Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro from the University of Almería in Spain published a research paper in Energies Journal. Energies is a peer-reviewed open access journal with an impact factor of 2.7.

Titled: "Estimating the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Palestine", the study used a mathematical model for determining the optimum tilt angle and for calculating the solar radiation on a south-facing surface on a daily, monthly, seasonal, semi-annual, and annual basis. Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS) and Photovoltaic Software (PVWatts) is developed by the NREL (US National Renewable Energy Laboratory) were also used to calculate the optimum monthly, seasonal, semi-annual, and annual tilt angles and to compare these results with the results obtained from the mathematical model. The results were very similar.

The results showed that monthly adjustments of the solar panels in the main Palestinian cities can generate about 17% more solar energy than the case of solar panels fixed on a horizontal surface. Seasonal and semi-annual adjustments can generate about 15% more energy (i.e., it is worth changing the solar panels 12 times a year (monthly) or at least 2 times a year (semi-annually)). The yearly optimum tilt angle for most Palestinian cities is about 29°, which yields an increase of about 10% energy gain compared to a solar panel fixed on a horizontal surface.

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